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Full text of "The Morphology And Evolution Of The Apes And Man"

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THE EVOLUTION  OF THE PEIMATES      331
The Northern Indian species of Dryopithecus form part of the collection of fossils known as the Siwalik Fauna, because they were discovered in the region of the Siwalik Hills. The geological formations range from the Middle Miocene up to and including the Pliocene. Besides Dryopithecus it contains the remains of four fossil Apes —Pal&osimia, Pal&opithecus, Sivapithecus and Simla, The tooth of Paldeosimia foreshadows those of the Orang, and those of Sivapithecus contain a mixture of human •and simian characters. Pilgrim believes that Sivapithecus is an ancestor of Man.
The remains of Paldsopithecus sivalensis, which consist of an incomplete palate and the canine and post-canine teeth of one side, were discovered by Theobald in 1878 at Jabi in the Punjab. Lydekker (510) pointed out its resemblances to the Chimpanzee, and Trouessart included it in the genus AnthropopithecMS. Dubois {515) thought it belonged to an ancient group of Apes, which included Pliopithecus and Dryopithecus. And •Gregory (509) placed it close to the ancestor of the Gorilla. The palate is long and narrow, the canine tooth is large, and the large, quadrilateral molar teeth have high cusps, a character which is possessed by the Gorilla {see p. 149). In a genealogical tree the arrangement which is most in accordance with our present knowledge is a Gorilline common stem which gives off Paldsopithecus low down and Anthropopithecus high up (fig. 67).
The Apes in the Siwalik Fauna were large terrestrial creatures, which had advanced far beyond their humble ancestor Propliopithecus in the Lower Oligocene rocks of the Egyptian Fayftra. The group contained th§ ancestors of the Orang, Chimpanzee, Gorilla and